LOS SERVICIOS AUXILIARES EN REDES DE DISTRIBUCIÓN ELÉCTRICA EN PRESENCIA DE GRAN CANTIDAD DE GENERACIÓN FOTOVOLTAICA DE BAJA POTENCIA (THE AUXILIAR SERVICES IN NETWORKS OF ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION IN PRESENCE OF A GREAT QUANTITY OF LOW POWER FOTOVOLTAIC GENERATION)

José Antonio Aquino Robles, Cecilia Fernández Nava, Leonel Corona R

Resumen


Resumen

Esta investigación tiene como propósito, presentar uno de los problemas que podría impedir la introducción masiva de la generación fotovoltaica, en redes de distribución eléctrica, de acuerdo a la normativa actual. Este problema es debido principalmente a que la curva de demanda de energía no coincide precisamente, con la curva de generación fotovoltaica. Que es la más utilizada en baja y media tensión. Produciendo con ello lo siguiente: A determinadas horas del día se llegarán a tener flujos de potencia eléctrica de los generadores fotovoltaicos hacia la red eléctrica; superando según sea el caso, el consumo propio de cada cliente que instale dichos generadores. El problema será evidente con la introducción masiva de generadores fotovoltaicos y que estos producirán incrementos en los niveles de tensión que podrían superar los niveles permitidos por la normatividad vigente, entre otros problemas más que serán descritos en este trabajo. Ahora bien con los incentivos que existen para promover la generación fotovoltaica domiciliaria, en México, pronto ésta forma de generación crecerá aún más. Por lo que será necesario trasladar el concepto de servicios auxiliares que se utiliza en los sistemas eléctricos de potencia hacia las redes de distribución eléctrica, con generación distribuida renovable. Este hecho no solo producirá una mayor penetración de la generación renovable lo cual por sí mismo ya tiene un impacto medioambiental positivo. De igual forma producirá un impacto social y local, ya que se aprovechará una fuente de energía abundante aunque dispersa, como lo es la luz solar. La cual es un recurso renovable por excelencia. Y por último se cumplirá con una de las directrices de la hoja de ruta que marcan el camino a seguir por el modelo de mercado de energía eléctrica en México y que es la no discriminación y el libre acceso a la red eléctrica hacia terceros.

Palabra(s) Clave: servicios auxiliares, red eléctrica inteligente, penetración de la generación fotovoltaica en la red.

 

Abstract

This research is intended to present solutions to one of the problems that could prevent the massive introduction of renewable generation, in electrical distribution networks, in accordance with the current regulations. This problem is mainly due to the fact that the energy demand curve does not exactly coincide with the electric generation curve produced by photovoltaic generation, which is the most used in low and medium voltage. Producing the following phenomenon: at certain times there will be electrical energy flows coming out of the photovoltaic generators, towards the electrical network, achieving thereby exceed the consumption of each customer installing said generators. The problem will be evident with the massive introduction of photovoltaic generators and that these will produce increases in the voltage levels that could exceed the levels allowed by the current regulations. Now with the incentives that exist to promote the home photovoltaic generation, in Mexico, soon this generation will grow even more. As a result, it will be necessary to transfer the concept of auxiliary services that are used in large power systems to electrical distribution networks, with renewable distributed generation. This fact will not only produce a greater penetration of the renewable generation which by itself already has a positive environmental impact. It will also have a social and local impact, since it will take advantage of an abundant but scattered energy source, such as sunlight. And lastly, one of the guidelines set out in the roadmap that marks the path to be followed by the liberalized markets for electric power in Mexico will be fulfilled and that it is non-discrimination and free access to the electricity grid towards third parties.

Keywords: auxiliary services, renewable distributed generation, smart grid, penetration of the photovoltaic generation in the grid.

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